Forgot your Password

If you have forgotten your password, please enter your account email below and we will reset your password and email you the new password.


Login to SciCrunch


Register an Account

Delete Saved Search

Are you sure you want to delete this saved search?


NIF LinkOut Portal


Heterozygous loss of Six5 in mice is sufficient to cause ocular cataracts.

Sarkar PS, Appukuttan B, Han J, Ito Y, Ai C, Tsai W, Chai Y, Stout JT, Reddy S
Nature genetics


Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by skeletal muscle wasting, myotonia, cardiac arrhythmia, hyperinsulinaemia, mental retardation and ocular cataracts. The genetic defect in DM is a CTG repeat expansion located in the 3' untranslated region of DMPK and 5' of a homeodomain-encoding gene, SIX5 (formerly DMAHP; refs 2-5). There are three mechanisms by which CTG expansion can result in DM. First, repeat expansion may alter the processing or transport of the mutant DMPK mRNA and consequently reduce DMPK levels. Second, CTG expansion may establish a region of heterochromatin 3' of the repeat sequence and decrease SIX5 transcription. Third, toxic effects of the repeat expansion may be intrinsic to the repeated elements at the level of DNA or RNA (refs 10,11). Previous studies have demonstrated that a dose-dependent loss of Dm15 (the mouse DMPK homologue) in mice produces a partial DM phenotype characterized by decreased development of skeletal muscle force and cardiac conduction disorders. To test the role of Six5 loss in DM, we have analysed a strain of mice in which Six5 was deleted. Our results demonstrate that the rate and severity of cataract formation is inversely related to Six5 dosage and is temporally progressive. Six5+/- and Six5-/- mice show increased steady-state levels of the Na+/K+-ATPase alpha-1 subunit and decreased Dm15 mRNA levels. Thus, altered ion homeostasis within the lens may contribute to cataract formation. As ocular cataracts are a characteristic feature of DM, these results demonstrate that decreased SIX5 transcription is important in the aetiology of DM. Our data support the hypothesis that DM is a contiguous gene syndrome associated with the partial loss of both DMPK and SIX5.

MGI Links

  1. Welcome

    Welcome to NIF. Explore available research resources: data, tools and materials, from across the web

  2. Community Resources

    Search for resources specially selected for NIF community

  3. More Resources

    Search across hundreds of additional biomedical databases

  4. Literature

    Search Pub Med abstracts and full text from PubMed Central

  5. Insert your Query

    Enter your search terms here and hit return. Search results for the selected tab will be returned.

  6. Join the Community

    Click here to login or register and join this community.

  7. Categories

    Narrow your search by selecting a category. For additional help in searching, view our tutorials.

  8. Query Info

    Displays the total number of search results. Provides additional information on search terms, e.g., automated query expansions, and any included categories or facets. Expansions, filters and facets can be removed by clicking on the X. Clicking on the + restores them.

  9. Search Results

    Displays individual records and a brief description. Click on the icons below each record to explore additional display options.