Forgot your Password

If you have forgotten your password, please enter your account email below and we will reset your password and email you the new password.


Login to SciCrunch


Register an Account

Delete Saved Search

Are you sure you want to delete this saved search?


NIF LinkOut Portal


A mutant ataxin-3 putative-cleavage fragment in brains of Machado-Joseph disease patients and transgenic mice is cytotoxic above a critical concentration.

Goti D, Katzen SM, Mez J, Kurtis N, Kiluk J, Ben-Haïem L, Jenkins NA, Copeland NG, Kakizuka A, Sharp AH, Ross CA, Mouton PR, Colomer V
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience


Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by ataxin-3 with a polyglutamine expansion. It is proposed that a toxic cleavage fragment of mutant ataxin-3 alternatively spliced isoform mjd1a triggers neurodegeneration, although this fragment has not yet been detected in the brains of MJD patients or in animal models. We have now generated transgenic mice expressing human mutant (Q71) or normal (Q20) ataxin-3 mjd1a under the control of the mouse prion promoter. Q71 transgenic mice expressing mutant ataxin-3 mjd1a above a critical level developed a phenotype similar to MJD including progressive postural instability, gait and limb ataxia, weight loss, premature death, neuronal intranuclear inclusions, and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (determined by unbiased stereology). Q20 transgenic mice had normal behavior and pathology. Brains from sick Q71 transgenic mice contained an abundant mutant ataxin-3 mjd1a putative-cleavage fragment (Fragment), which was scarce in normal Q71 transgenic mice. Reactivity of the Fragment with a panel of antibodies and comigration with truncations of mutant ataxin-3 revealed that it contained residues C terminal to amino acid 221 to include the polyglutamine expansion. A similar portion of mutant ataxin-3 mjd1a expressed in transfected neuroblastoma cells was toxic above a critical concentration. The Fragment was more abundant in two affected brain regions of MJD patients. Thus, we have developed a murine model for mutant ataxin-3 mjd1a toxicity and identified a putative-cleavage fragment of the disease protein in the brains of these transgenic mice and MJD patients that is cytotoxic above a critical concentration.

MGI Links

  1. Welcome

    Welcome to NIF. Explore available research resources: data, tools and materials, from across the web

  2. Community Resources

    Search for resources specially selected for NIF community

  3. More Resources

    Search across hundreds of additional biomedical databases

  4. Literature

    Search Pub Med abstracts and full text from PubMed Central

  5. Insert your Query

    Enter your search terms here and hit return. Search results for the selected tab will be returned.

  6. Join the Community

    Click here to login or register and join this community.

  7. Categories

    Narrow your search by selecting a category. For additional help in searching, view our tutorials.

  8. Query Info

    Displays the total number of search results. Provides additional information on search terms, e.g., automated query expansions, and any included categories or facets. Expansions, filters and facets can be removed by clicking on the X. Clicking on the + restores them.

  9. Search Results

    Displays individual records and a brief description. Click on the icons below each record to explore additional display options.