Forgot your Password

If you have forgotten your password, please enter your account email below and we will reset your password and email you the new password.


Login to SciCrunch


Register an Account

Delete Saved Search

Are you sure you want to delete this saved search?


NIF LinkOut Portal


A DNA insulator prevents repression of a targeted X-linked transgene but not its random or imprinted X inactivation.

Ciavatta D, Kalantry S, Magnuson T, Smithies O
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America


Some genes on the inactive X chromosome escape silencing. One possible escape mechanism is that heterochromatization during X inactivation can be blocked by boundary elements. DNA insulators are candidates for blocking because they shield genes from influences of their chromosomal environment. To test whether DNA insulators can act as boundaries on the X chromosome, we inserted into the mouse X-linked Hprt locus a GFP transgene flanked with zero, one, or two copies of a prototypic vertebrate insulator from the chicken beta-globin locus, chicken hypersensitive site 4, which contains CCCTC binding factor binding sites. On the active X chromosome the insulators blocked repression of the transgene, which commences during early development and persists in adults, in a copy number-dependent manner. CpG methylation of the transgene correlated inversely with expression, but the insulators on the active X chromosome were not methylated. On the inactive X chromosome, insulators did not block random or imprinted X inactivation of the transgene, and both the insulator and transgene were almost completely methylated. Thus, the chicken hypersensitive site 4 DNA insulator is sufficient to protect an X-linked gene from repression during development but not from X inactivation.

  1. Welcome

    Welcome to NIF. Explore available research resources: data, tools and materials, from across the web

  2. Community Resources

    Search for resources specially selected for NIF community

  3. More Resources

    Search across hundreds of additional biomedical databases

  4. Literature

    Search Pub Med abstracts and full text from PubMed Central

  5. Insert your Query

    Enter your search terms here and hit return. Search results for the selected tab will be returned.

  6. Join the Community

    Click here to login or register and join this community.

  7. Categories

    Narrow your search by selecting a category. For additional help in searching, view our tutorials.

  8. Query Info

    Displays the total number of search results. Provides additional information on search terms, e.g., automated query expansions, and any included categories or facets. Expansions, filters and facets can be removed by clicking on the X. Clicking on the + restores them.

  9. Search Results

    Displays individual records and a brief description. Click on the icons below each record to explore additional display options.