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Mycotoxins in rice.

Tanaka K, Sago Y, Zheng Y, Nakagawa H, Kushiro M
International journal of food microbiology


Mycotoxin contamination in rice is usually lower as in wheat or corn. However, there are some reports that rice has been contaminated with mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 (AFS), citrinin, deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1, B2, B3 (FMS), fusarenon-X (Fus.-X), nivalenol (NIV), ochratoxin A (OTA), sterigmatocystin (STE), and zearalenone. Rice in Japan is preserved in warehouses where moisture content and temperature are regulated. Therefore, mycotoxin contamination from post harvest fungal growth occurs very seldom. Trichothecenes, aflatoxins, and STE in rice were recently analyzed in our laboratory. In 1998, a typhoon struck before rice harvesting in Japan, and the unpolished rice was found to be stained brown. Samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of trichothecenes. Mycotoxins DON, Fus.-X, and NIV were detected and confirmed with GC-MS. The quantity of trichothecenes was determined using GC-ECD. STE is a carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus versicolor and some other fungi. STE contamination of rice was studied in our laboratory since 1973. GC-MS, LC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and LC-UV methods for STE determination were examined, giving good results for the LC-UV method using a photo diode array detector. Different techniques for the extraction of STE from rice were also studied. Finally, brown rice was ground, and the ground rice was extracted with acetonitrile-water. An Autoprep MF-A 1000 column was used to clean up AFS and STE. The cleaned-up extract was analyzed with HPLC-UV. Forty-eight brown rice samples were analyzed, and none of them were contaminated with STE. These rice samples were also analyzed for AFS and FMS, and none of the samples were contaminated. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in Japan is making the appropriate Institutes develop analytical methods for mycotoxins and survey mycotoxin contamination on rice as well as wheat, corn, and some other cereals.

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