Forgot your Password

If you have forgotten your password, please enter your account email below and we will reset your password and email you the new password.


Login to SciCrunch


Register an Account

Delete Saved Search

Are you sure you want to delete this saved search?


NIF LinkOut Portal


Developmental expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase and of gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptors in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

Zega G, Biggiogero M, Groppelli S, Candiani S, Oliveri D, Parodi M, Pestarino M, De Bernardi F, Pennati R
The Journal of comparative neurology


We describe Ciona intestinalis gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurons during development, studying the expression pattern of Ci-GAD (glutamic acid decarboxylase: GABA synthesizing enzyme) by in situ hybridization. Moreover, we cloned two GABA(B) receptor subunits (Ci-GABA(B)Rs), and a phylogenetic analysis (neighbor-joining method) suggested that they clustered with their vertebrate counterparts. We compared Ci-GAD and Ci-GABA(B)Rs expression patterns in C. intestinalis embryos and larvae. At the tailbud stage, Ci-GAD expression was widely detected in central and peripheral nervous system (CNS/PNS) precursors, whereas Ci-GABA(B)Rs expression was evident at the level of the precursors of the visceral ganglion. GABA was localized by immunohistochemistry at the same developmental stage. In the larva, Ci-GAD transcripts and GABA immunofluorescence were also detected throughout the CNS and in some neurons of the PNS, whereas transcripts of both GABA(B) receptor subunits were found mainly in the CNS. The expression pattern of Ci-GABA(B)Rs appeared restricted to Ci-GAD-positive territories in the sensory vesicle, whereas, in the visceral ganglion, Ci-GABA(B)Rs transcripts were found in ventral motoneurons that did not express Ci-GAD. Insofar as GABAergic neurons are widely distributed also in the CNS and PNS of vertebrates and other invertebrate chordates, it seems likely that GABA signaling was extensively present in the protochordate nervous system. Results from this work show that GABA is the most widespread inhibitory neurotransmitter in C. intestinalis nervous system and that it can signal through GABA(B) receptors both pre- and postsynaptically to modulate different sensory inputs and subsequent swimming activity.

  1. Welcome

    Welcome to NIF. Explore available research resources: data, tools and materials, from across the web

  2. Community Resources

    Search for resources specially selected for NIF community

  3. More Resources

    Search across hundreds of additional biomedical databases

  4. Literature

    Search Pub Med abstracts and full text from PubMed Central

  5. Insert your Query

    Enter your search terms here and hit return. Search results for the selected tab will be returned.

  6. Join the Community

    Click here to login or register and join this community.

  7. Categories

    Narrow your search by selecting a category. For additional help in searching, view our tutorials.

  8. Query Info

    Displays the total number of search results. Provides additional information on search terms, e.g., automated query expansions, and any included categories or facets. Expansions, filters and facets can be removed by clicking on the X. Clicking on the + restores them.

  9. Search Results

    Displays individual records and a brief description. Click on the icons below each record to explore additional display options.