Neuroscience Information Framework

Options
Only Pubmed Central
Include Pubmed Central
Sections
Title
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results
Supplement
Appendix
Contributions
Background
Commentary
Funding
Limitations
Caption
FILTERS

The N-end rule pathway is a sensor of heme.

Authors:
Hu RG, Wang H, Xia Z, Varshavsky A
Affiliation:
Journal:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Abstract

The conjugation of arginine, by arginyl-transferase, to N-terminal aspartate, glutamate or oxidized cysteine is a part of the N-end rule pathway of protein degradation. We report that arginyl-transferase of either the mouse or the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is inhibited by hemin (Fe(3+)-heme). Furthermore, we show that hemin inhibits arginyl-transferase through a redox mechanism that involves the formation of disulfide between the enzyme's Cys-71 and Cys-72 residues. Remarkably, hemin also induces the proteasome-dependent degradation of arginyl-transferase in vivo, thus acting as both a "stoichiometric" and "catalytic" down-regulator of the N-end rule pathway. In addition, hemin was found to interact with the yeast and mouse E3 ubiquitin ligases of the N-end rule pathway. One of substrate-binding sites of the yeast N-end rule's ubiquitin ligase UBR1 targets CUP9, a transcriptional repressor. This site of UBR1 is autoinhibited but can be allosterically activated by peptides that bear destabilizing N-terminal residues and interact with two other substrate-binding sites of UBR1. We show that hemin does not directly occlude the substrate-binding sites of UBR1 but blocks the activation of its CUP9-binding site by dipeptides. The N-end rule pathway, a known sensor of short peptides, nitric oxide, and oxygen, is now a sensor of heme as well. One function of the N-end rule pathway may be to coordinate the activities of small effectors, both reacting to and controlling the redox dynamics of heme, oxygen, nitric oxide, thiols, and other compounds, in part through conditional degradation of specific transcription factors and G protein regulators.

  1. Welcome

    Welcome to NIF. Explore available research resources: data, tools and materials, from across the web

  2. Community Resources

    Search for resources specially selected for NIF community

  3. More Resources

    Search across hundreds of additional biomedical databases

  4. Literature

    Search Pub Med abstracts and full text from PubMed Central

  5. Insert your Query

    Enter your search terms here and hit return. Search results for the selected tab will be returned.

  6. Join the Community

    Click here to login or register and join this community.

  7. Categories

    Narrow your search by selecting a category. For additional help in searching, view our tutorials.

  8. Query Info

    Displays the total number of search results. Provides additional information on search terms, e.g., automated query expansions, and any included categories or facets. Expansions, filters and facets can be removed by clicking on the X. Clicking on the + restores them.

  9. Search Results

    Displays individual records and a brief description. Click on the icons below each record to explore additional display options.

X