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XIAP mediates NOD signaling via interaction with RIP2.

Krieg A, Correa RG, Garrison JB, Le Negrate G, Welsh K, Huang Z, Knoefel WT, Reed JC
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America


NOD1 and NOD2 are members of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) protein family that are involved in sensing the presence of pathogens and are a component of the innate immune system. Upon activation by specific bacterial peptides derived from peptidoglycans, NODs interact via a CARD-CARD interaction with the receptor-interacting protein kinase RIP2, an inducer of NF-kappaB activation. In this report, we show that NOD signaling is dependent on XIAP, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family. Cells deficient in XIAP exhibit a marked reduction in NF-kappaB activation induced by microbial NOD ligands and by over-expression of NOD1 or NOD2. Moreover, we show that XIAP interacts with RIP2 via its BIR2 domain, which could be disrupted by XIAP antagonists SMAC and SMAC-mimicking compounds. Both NOD1 and NOD2 associated with XIAP in a RIP2-dependent manner, providing evidence that XIAP associates with the NOD signalosome. Taken together, our data suggest a role for XIAP in regulating innate immune responses by interacting with NOD1 and NOD2 through interaction with RIP2.

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