Forgot your Password

If you have forgotten your password, please enter your account email below and we will reset your password and email you the new password.


Login to SciCrunch


Register an Account

Delete Saved Search

Are you sure you want to delete this saved search?


NIF LinkOut Portal


D-serine is distributed in neurons in the brain of the sea lamprey.

Villar-Cerviño V, Barreiro-Iglesias A, Rodicio MC, Anadón R
The Journal of comparative neurology


The amino acid D-serine is an endogenous coagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in mammals that has been shown to play an important role in synaptic function, behavior, learning, and memory. The distribution and cellular location of D-serine in the brain of the sea lamprey was investigated by using immunofluorescence methods. One major finding of our study, unlike early studies of mammals, was the localization of D-serine immunoreactivity in perikarya and dendrites of neurons, whereas D-serine immunoreactivity was not generally observed in the lamprey glia. D-serine-immunoreactive neurons were observed in different brain regions, including the olfactory bulb, medial pallium, thalamus, torus semicircularis, isthmus, and reticular formation. The colocalization of D-serine with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was also studied with a double-immunofluorescence technique. The relationship between D-serine and glycine immunoreactivities was studied in alternate parallel series of sections stained for either D-serine/GABA or glycine/GABA. Colocalization with GABA was observed in various D-serine-immunoreactive populations, and codistribution and possible colocalization with glycine was also observed in some populations, mainly in the dorsal isthmic gray, medial octavolateral nucleus, dorsal column nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, and reticular formation. Although numerous fibers were strongly GABA- and glycine-immunoreactive, D-serine immunoreactivity was observed mostly in cell perikarya and dendrites. The present results indicate that the D-serine immunoreactive cells are small to medium-sized neurons, some exhibiting classical inhibitory neurotransmitters, in which D-serine might be acting as a modulator. The neuronal distribution of D-serine and its frequent colocalization and/or codistribution with the two main inhibitory neurotransmitters appeared early in vertebrates.

  1. Welcome

    Welcome to NIF. Explore available research resources: data, tools and materials, from across the web

  2. Community Resources

    Search for resources specially selected for NIF community

  3. More Resources

    Search across hundreds of additional biomedical databases

  4. Literature

    Search Pub Med abstracts and full text from PubMed Central

  5. Insert your Query

    Enter your search terms here and hit return. Search results for the selected tab will be returned.

  6. Join the Community

    Click here to login or register and join this community.

  7. Categories

    Narrow your search by selecting a category. For additional help in searching, view our tutorials.

  8. Query Info

    Displays the total number of search results. Provides additional information on search terms, e.g., automated query expansions, and any included categories or facets. Expansions, filters and facets can be removed by clicking on the X. Clicking on the + restores them.

  9. Search Results

    Displays individual records and a brief description. Click on the icons below each record to explore additional display options.