Forgot your Password

If you have forgotten your password, please enter your account email below and we will reset your password and email you the new password.


Login to SciCrunch


Register an Account

Delete Saved Search

Are you sure you want to delete this saved search?


NIF LinkOut Portal


A simple method of in vitro electroporation allows visualization, recording, and calcium imaging of local neuronal circuits.

Hovis KR, Padmanabhan K, Urban NN
Journal of neuroscience methods


Since Cajal's early drawings, the characterization of neuronal architecture has been paramount in understanding neuronal function. With the development of electrophysiological techniques that provide unprecedented access to the physiology of these cells, experimental questions of neuronal function have also become more tractable. Fluorescent tracers that can label the anatomy of individual or populations of neurons have opened the door to linking anatomy with physiology. Experimentally however, current techniques for bulk labeling of cells in vitro often affect neuronal function creating a barrier for exploring structure-function questions. Here we describe a new technique for highly localized electroporation within a cell or cell population that enables the introduction of membrane impermeable charged dyes including dextran-conjugated fluorophores, hydrazide tracers, and calcium indicator dyes in vitro. We demonstrate that this technique is highly versatile, allowing for labeling of large or small areas of tissue, allowing for the investigation of both cellular morphology and physiological activity in identified neuronal circuits in acute brain slices. Furthermore, this approach allows subsequent targeted whole-cell patch recording based on well-defined connectivity as well as assessment of physiological activity in targeted circuits on a fast time scale.

  1. Welcome

    Welcome to NIF. Explore available research resources: data, tools and materials, from across the web

  2. Community Resources

    Search for resources specially selected for NIF community

  3. More Resources

    Search across hundreds of additional biomedical databases

  4. Literature

    Search Pub Med abstracts and full text from PubMed Central

  5. Insert your Query

    Enter your search terms here and hit return. Search results for the selected tab will be returned.

  6. Join the Community

    Click here to login or register and join this community.

  7. Categories

    Narrow your search by selecting a category. For additional help in searching, view our tutorials.

  8. Query Info

    Displays the total number of search results. Provides additional information on search terms, e.g., automated query expansions, and any included categories or facets. Expansions, filters and facets can be removed by clicking on the X. Clicking on the + restores them.

  9. Search Results

    Displays individual records and a brief description. Click on the icons below each record to explore additional display options.