X

Forgot your Password

If you have forgotten your password, please enter your account email below and we will reset your password and email you the new password.

X

Login to SciCrunch

X

Register an Account

Delete Saved Search

Are you sure you want to delete this saved search?

NO

NIF LinkOut Portal

FILTERS

Ammonia-induced autophagy is independent of ULK1/ULK2 kinases.

Authors:
Cheong H, Lindsten T, Wu J, Lu C, Thompson CB
Affiliation:
Journal:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Abstract

Autophagy, a lysosome-mediated catabolic process, contributes to maintenance of intracellular homeostasis and cellular response to metabolic stress. In yeast, genes essential to the execution of autophagy have been defined, including autophagy-related gene 1 (ATG1), a kinase responsible for initiation of autophagy downstream of target of rapamycin. Here we investigate the role of the mammalian Atg1 homologs, uncoordinated family member (unc)-51-like kinase 1 and 2 (ULK1 and ULK2), in autophagy by generating mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) doubly deficient for ULK1 and ULK2. We found that ULK1/2 are required in the autophagy response to amino acid deprivation but not for autophagy induced by deprivation of glucose or inhibition of glucose metabolism. This ULK1/2-independent autophagy was not the simple result of bioenergetic compromise and failed to be induced by AMP-activated protein kinase activators such as 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside and phenformin. Instead we found that autophagy induction upon glucose deprivation correlated with a rise in cellular ammonia levels caused by elevated amino acid catabolism. Even in complete medium, ammonia induced autophagy in WT and Ulk1/2(-/-) MEFs but not in Atg5-deficient MEFs. The autophagy response to ammonia is abrogated by a cell-permeable form of pyruvate resulting from the scavenging of excess ammonia through pyruvate conversion to alanine. Thus, although ULK1 and/or ULK2 are required for the autophagy response following deprivation of nitrogenous amino acids, the autophagy response to the enhanced amino acid catabolism induced by deprivation of glucose or direct exposure to ammonia does not require ULK1 and/or ULK2. Together, these data suggest that autophagy provides cells with a mechanism to adapt not only to nitrogen deprivation but also to nitrogen excess.

  1. Welcome

    Welcome to NIF. Explore available research resources: data, tools and materials, from across the web

  2. Community Resources

    Search for resources specially selected for NIF community

  3. More Resources

    Search across hundreds of additional biomedical databases

  4. Literature

    Search Pub Med abstracts and full text from PubMed Central

  5. Insert your Query

    Enter your search terms here and hit return. Search results for the selected tab will be returned.

  6. Join the Community

    Click here to login or register and join this community.

  7. Categories

    Narrow your search by selecting a category. For additional help in searching, view our tutorials.

  8. Query Info

    Displays the total number of search results. Provides additional information on search terms, e.g., automated query expansions, and any included categories or facets. Expansions, filters and facets can be removed by clicking on the X. Clicking on the + restores them.

  9. Search Results

    Displays individual records and a brief description. Click on the icons below each record to explore additional display options.

X