Neuroscience Information Framework

Options
Only Pubmed Central
Include Pubmed Central
Sections
Title
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results
Supplement
Appendix
Contributions
Background
Commentary
Funding
Limitations
Caption
FILTERS

Targeted deletion of 5'HS2 of the murine beta-globin LCR reveals that it is not essential for proper regulation of the beta-globin locus.

Authors:
Fiering S, Epner E, Robinson K, Zhuang Y, Telling A, Hu M, Martin DI, Enver T, Ley TJ, Groudine M
Affiliation:
Journal:
Genes & development

Abstract

The beta-globin locus control region (LCR) is a complex regulatory element that is essential for the appropriate red cell-specific expression of all cis-linked beta-globin genes. Of the five hypersensitive sites that define the LCR, only 5'HS2 has been shown to augment gene expression in vitro in both transient and stable assays, as well as in transgenic mice. Thus, 5'HS2 has been assumed to be an important element for the function of the LCR in vivo. We have utilized homologous recombination in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells and phenotypic analysis in derived mice to investigate the function of 5'HS2 in its normal chromosomal position in the murine beta-globin locus. Replacement of 5'HS2 with a selectable marker gene (delta HS2 + neo) causes a 2-5-fold reduction in expression of all of the genes in the locus, and a more pronounced effect (10-12-fold) on the most 5' embryonic globin gene, Ey, when expression of this gene is first detectable during embryogenesis. The mutation produces no alterations in the developmental timing of expression of the globin genes. When homozygous, the deletion/replacement mutation is lethal in utero, with the embryos dying during the stage of yolk sac and early fetal liver erythropoiesis. To distinguish phenotypic effects resulting from the deletion of 5'HS2 from those attributable to insertion of the selectable marker, the selectable marker was removed by expressing the FLP site-specific recombinase in ES cells harboring the homologous recombination event. Mice derived from these ES cells (delta HS2 delta neo) demonstrated nearly full expression of all the beta-like globin genes on the mutated chromosome. These results indicate that although 5'HS2 demonstrates significant regulatory activities in a variety of assays, deletion of this element from the endogenous beta-globin locus has no significant effect on the timing or extent of expression of the locus. In addition, this result emphasizes that when using homologous recombination to analyze complex regulatory elements in vivo, the inserted selectable marker must be removed to avoid influencing the phenotype of the mutation.

  1. Welcome

    Welcome to NIF. Explore available research resources: data, tools and materials, from across the web

  2. Community Resources

    Search for resources specially selected for NIF community

  3. More Resources

    Search across hundreds of additional biomedical databases

  4. Literature

    Search Pub Med abstracts and full text from PubMed Central

  5. Insert your Query

    Enter your search terms here and hit return. Search results for the selected tab will be returned.

  6. Join the Community

    Click here to login or register and join this community.

  7. Categories

    Narrow your search by selecting a category. For additional help in searching, view our tutorials.

  8. Query Info

    Displays the total number of search results. Provides additional information on search terms, e.g., automated query expansions, and any included categories or facets. Expansions, filters and facets can be removed by clicking on the X. Clicking on the + restores them.

  9. Search Results

    Displays individual records and a brief description. Click on the icons below each record to explore additional display options.

X