Forgot your Password

If you have forgotten your password, please enter your account email below and we will reset your password and email you the new password.


Login to SciCrunch


Register an Account

Delete Saved Search

Are you sure you want to delete this saved search?


NIF LinkOut Portal


The three human syntrophin genes are expressed in diverse tissues, have distinct chromosomal locations, and each bind to dystrophin and its relatives.

Ahn AH, Freener CA, Gussoni E, Yoshida M, Ozawa E, Kunkel LM
The Journal of biological chemistry


The syntrophins are a biochemically heterogeneous group of 58-kDa intracellular membrane-associated dystrophin-binding proteins. We have cloned and characterized human acidic (alpha 1-) syntrophin and a second isoform of human basic (beta 2-) syntrophin. Comparison of the deduced amino acid structure of the three human isoforms of syntrophin (together with the previously reported human beta 1-syntrophin) demonstrates their overall similarity. The deduced amino acid sequences of human alpha 1- and beta 2-syntrophin are nearly identical to their homologues in mouse, suggesting a strong functional conservation among the individual isoforms, Much like beta 1-syntrophin, human beta 2-syntrophin has multiple transcript classes and is expressed widely, although in a distinct pattern of relative abundance. In contrast, human alpha 1-syntrophin is most abundant in heart and skeletal muscle, and less so in other tissues. Somatic cell hybrids and fluorescent in situ hybridization were both used to determine their chromosomal locations: beta 2-syntrophin to chromosome 16q22-23 and alpha 1-syntrophin to chromosome 20q11.2. Finally, we used in vitro translated proteins in an immunoprecipitation assay to show that, like beta 1-syntrophin, both beta 2- and alpha 1-syntrophin interact with peptides encoding the syntrophin-binding region of dystrophin, utrophin/dystrophin related protein, and the Torpedo 87K protein.

  1. Welcome

    Welcome to NIF. Explore available research resources: data, tools and materials, from across the web

  2. Community Resources

    Search for resources specially selected for NIF community

  3. More Resources

    Search across hundreds of additional biomedical databases

  4. Literature

    Search Pub Med abstracts and full text from PubMed Central

  5. Insert your Query

    Enter your search terms here and hit return. Search results for the selected tab will be returned.

  6. Join the Community

    Click here to login or register and join this community.

  7. Categories

    Narrow your search by selecting a category. For additional help in searching, view our tutorials.

  8. Query Info

    Displays the total number of search results. Provides additional information on search terms, e.g., automated query expansions, and any included categories or facets. Expansions, filters and facets can be removed by clicking on the X. Clicking on the + restores them.

  9. Search Results

    Displays individual records and a brief description. Click on the icons below each record to explore additional display options.